International Journal of Medical Research and Analysis (IJMRAA) is a quarterly, peer-reviewed, open access, international medical journal [ISSN.......(Online at www.ijmraa.com). It is the official journal of the Global Medical Information Private Limited, Nepal. Each issue of International Journal of Medical Research and Analysis publishes Original Research Articles, Review Articles, Medical Images, Brief Reports/Case Reports, Editorials, and Letters to the Editor.
IJMRAA stands as a forum from which the researchers conducted in various disciplines in medicine, the reviews done, novel and unique cases which we encounter during our professional career can be made available to our readers.

PUBLICATION ETHICS AND POLICIES FOR IJMRAA
The publication of a manuscript comes from the respected network of knowledge. It reflects the quality work of the authors and the institutions that support them.
Peer-reviewed articles support and embody the scientific method. This leads to the importance of ethical responsibility that follows on to any author, editor, reviewer, and owner of the journal. Based on a number of industry organizations, notably the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (Consort) and IJMRAA Publication a comprehensive policy on publication ethics is summarized here, which addresses all the major areas IJMRAA considers important. Policies are given in order of manuscript supervisions.
1. Ethical consideration

2. Patient consent

3. Authorship criteria

4. Corresponding author

5. Disclosure and conflicts of interest

6. Duties of authors

7. Copyright transfer

8. Duties of editors

9. Editorial independence

10. Duties of reviewers

11. Plagiarism and possible misconduct

Ethical considerations
Ethics committee approval from respective health institution is obligatory for all manuscript submission. The following information should be presented. Manuscripts reporting data obtained from research conducted on human subjects must include a statement of assurance in the Methods section of the manuscript that
1. Informed consent was obtained from each patient and

2. The study protocol conforms to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki as reflected in a priori approval by the institution's human research committee. Ethics committee approval statement (IRC approval) is compulsory at the time of manuscript submission. IJMRAA does not have any policy for accepting/considering manuscripts reporting experiments using animals.

Patient consent
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in submitted manuscript. Patients’ right must be respected and hence, identifying information, including patients? Images, names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be included in videos, recordings, written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and you have obtained written informed consent for publication in print and electronic form from the patient (or parent, guardian or next of kin where applicable).
If such consent is made subject to any conditions, IJMRAA must be made aware of all such conditions. Written consents must be provided to IJMRAA on request.
Even where consent has been given, identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential.
If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note.
If such consent has not been obtained, personal details of patients included in any part of the paper and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Authorship criteria
An “author” generally considered as someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study, and biomedical authorship continues to have important academic, social, and financial implications.

Authors should meet following conditions
1. Authorship credit should be based on

o Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data;

o Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and

o Final approval of the version to be published
2.When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsib‐ ility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship defined below, and editors will ask these individuals to complete journal specific author and conflict-of-interest disclosure forms. When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name.

To qualify for authorship, one must be available for each of the 3 categories of contributions listed below. To have made substantial contributions to the intellectual content of the paper as described above.

1. (At least 1 of the 3 below)
• Conception and design
• Acquisition of data
• Analysis and interpretation of data
2.(At least 1 of 2 below)
• Drafting of the manuscript
• Critical revision of the manuscript for Important intellectual content
3.(At least 1 below)
• Statistical analysis
• Obtaining fund, Administrative, technical, or material support
• Supervision
IJMRAA appeals those that don’t meet the authorship - defined criteria, to be mentioned in Acknowledgement section of the manuscript. IJMRAA discourages "honorary" authorship and should also try to ensure that all those who qualify as authors are listed.

Corresponding author
The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest
Submission of manuscript also entails author/s disclose all their competing interests, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations relevant to the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript.
These are also to be disclosed in the Acknowledgment section of the manuscript. All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflicts of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.
Examples of potential conflicts of interest, which should be disclosed, include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Potential conflicts of interest should be disclosed at the earliest stage possible.

Duties of authors
Reporting standards
An accurate account of the implemented work and results should be presented, along with an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable. Review and professional publication articles should also be accurate and objective, and editorial ‘opinion’ works should be clearly identified as such.
Data access and retention
Authors may be asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data, if practicable, and should, in any event, be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.
Originality and plagiarism
The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. For more information, please refer to Section 11 of this document.
Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication
An author should not, in general, publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.
Acknowledgment of sources
Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work. Information obtained privately, as in conversation, correspondence, or discussion with third parties, must not be used or reported without explicit, written permission from the source. Information obtained in the course of confidential services, such as refereeing manuscripts or grant applications, must not be used without the explicit written permission of the author of the work involved in these services.
Fundamental errors in published work
When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper. If the editor or the publisher learns from a third party that a published work contains a significant error, it is the obligation of the author to promptly retract or correct the paper or provide evidence to the editor of the correctness of the original l paper.

Copyright transfer
Submission of an original manuscript to the Journal will be taken to mean that it represents original work not previously published, that it is not being considered elsewhere for publication and that the author is willing to assign copyright to the journal as per a contract that will be s ent to the author just prior to publication. If accepted for publication, it will be published online and in print and it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, for commercial purposes, in any language, without the consent of the publisher.
Publication of scholarly research is meant to disseminate knowledge and, in a not-for-profit regime, benefits neither publisher nor author financially. Authors who publish in the International Journal of Medical Research and Analysis agree to transfer their rights to IJMRAA. IJMRAA will then release their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution-4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) License.
This license allows anyone to copy and distributes the article for non-commercial purposes provided that appropriate attribution is given. For details of the rights, an author grants users of their work, please see the license summary at following web page -http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

What rights do I retain as a journal author?
1. The right to make copies (print or electronic) of the journal article for your own personal use, including for your own classroom teaching use
2. The right to make copies and distribute copies of the journal article (including via e -mail) to research colleagues, for personal use by such colleagues for scholarly purposes
3. The right to post a pre-print version of the journal article on Internet websites including electronic pre-print servers, and to retain indefinitely such version on such servers or sites for scholarly purposes
4. The right to post a revised personal version of the text of the final journal article (to reflect changes made in the peer review process) on your personal or institutional website or server for scholarly purposes, incorporating the complete citation and with a link to the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) of the article
5. The right to present the journal article at a meeting or conference and to distribute copies of such paper or article to the delegates attending the meeting
6. The right to use the journal article or any part thereof in a printed compilation of your works, such as collected writings or lecture notes (subsequent to publication of the article in the journal);

Following rights will be held by IJMRAA under Creative Commons Attribution - 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0)
The right to prepare other derivative works, to extend the journal article into book-length form, or to otherwise re-use portions or excerpts in other works, with full acknowledgment of its original publication in the journal, providing appropriate credit to the author, indicating changes, if any.

Why does IJMRAA request transfer of copyright, before releasing into Creative Common License?
The research community needs certainty with respect to the validity of scientific papers, which is normally obtained through the editing and peer review processes. The scientific record must be clear and unambiguous. IJMRAA believes that, by obtaining copyright transfer, it will always be clear to researchers that when they access an IJMRAA site to review a paper, they are reading a final version of the paper which has been edited, peer-reviewed and accepted for publication in this appropriate journal.

Editors
With authority comes responsibilities, and IJMRAA views this as an opportunity for self‐help and development of an ecosystem, between our valued authors, editors and reviewers. IJMRAA puts forward following policy guidelines, for Editors.
Duties of editors
Fair play
An editor should evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.
Confidentiality
The editor and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate.
Publication decisions
The editor of a peer-reviewed journal is responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published. The validation of the work in question and its importance to researchers and readers must always drive such decisions. The editor may be guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.
Involvement and cooperation in investigations
An editor should take reasonably responsive measures when ethical complaints have been presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published paper, in conjunction with the publisher (or society). Such measures will generally include contacting the author of the manuscript or paper and giving due consideration of the respective complaint or claims made, but may also include further communications to the relevant institutions and research bodies, and if the complaint is upheld, the publication of a correction, retraction, expression of concern, or other note, as may be relevant. Every reported act of unethical publishing behavior must be looked into, even if it is discovered years after publication.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest
• Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in an editor's own research without the express written consent of the author.
• Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage.
• Editors should recuse themselves (i.e. should ask a co-editor, associate editor or other members of the editorial board instead to review and consider) from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or (possibly) institutions connected to the papers.
• Editors should require all contributors to disclose relevant competing interests and publish corrections if competing interests are revealed after publication. If needed, other appropriate action should be taken, such as the publication of a retraction or expression of concern.
• Non-peer reviewed sections of their journal should be clearly identified.

Editorial independence
The IJMRAA adopts the World Association of Medical Editors’ definition of editorial freedom. According to this definition, editorial freedom, or independence, is the concept that editors-in-chief have full authority over the editorial content of their journal and the timing of publication of that content. Journal owners shall not interfere in the evaluation, selection, or editing of individual articles either directly or by creating an environment that strongly influences decisions. Journal owners should not require editors to publish supplements as part of their contractual agreements. Editors should base decisions on the validity of the work and its importance to the journal’s readers, not on the commercial success of the journal. Editors at IJMRAA will be free to express critical but responsible views about all aspects of medicine without fear of retribution, even if these views conflict with the commercial goals of the publisher.

Peer review
Peer reviewers are experts chosen by editors to provide written assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of written research, with the aim of improving the reporting of research and identifying the most appropriate and highest quality material for the journal. Reviews will be expected to be professional, honest, courteous, prompt, and constructive. The desired major elements of a high-quality review should be as follows:
Duties of reviewers:
Promptness
Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.
Confidentiality
Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.
Disclosure and conflict of interest
Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in a reviewer’s own research without the express written consent of the author. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which excessive poor and self-plagiarism.
Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.
Standards of objectivity
they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers
Contribution to editorial decisions
Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper.
Peer review is an essential component of formal scholarly communication and lies at the heart of the scientific method. IJMRAA shares the view of many that all scholars who wish to contribute to publications have an obligation to do a fair share of reviewing.
Acknowledgment of sources
Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.

Plagiarism and possible misconduct
Plagiarism
Plagiarism is the use of others' published and unpublished ideas or words (or other intellectual property) without attribution or permission, and presenting them as new and original rather than derived from an existing source. This applies whether the ideas or words are taken from abstracts, research grant applications, Institutional Review Board applications, or unpublished or published manuscripts in any publication format (print or electronic).
IJMRAA defines plagiarism as:
Whenever an author uses another person's exact words, they must be placed in quotation marks and a citation must be given. The reader of an article in IJMRAA must know which words are the author's and which belong to someone else. Even documents in the public domain, such as government documents, must be attributed to their source.
The author's copying of her or his own previously published material: duplicate publication or "self-plagiarism." If an author has published an article in Journal A, she or he may not send the same article with a few minor adjustments to Journal B. Nor may she or he take verbatim portions o f the first article without quotation marks for use in a second article. Each publication should contain fresh writing, even if there is nothing new to report on the topic.
Inadequate acknowledgment of data or ideas
Most writers rely on the ideas and data of others, but doing so without naming the source is a form of plagiarism.

Copyright infringement
Occurs when an author copies (with or without attribution) significant portions of a published work, including tables and figures, without having obtained the permission of the person or publisher holding the copyright. When this plagiarized "writing" is published, the new publisher is guilty of violating the copyright held by the original publisher.
An author may believe that juggling the words of a copied‐and-pasted sentence from another article is adequate. It is not. Also, it is not acceptable for an author's work to be made up largely of paraphrased sentences from other published material. And the ordering of information presented in an article must be original and not too closely follow another published work.

Policy for misconduct
IJMRAA policy on plagiarism is shaped by two desires: to inform authors of acceptable writing practices and to set a very high standard for the publication of peer-reviewed articles.
1. When plagiarism is detected, by either peer reviewers or staff editors, before or after acceptance, during editing, or at any time before publication, IJMRAA staff will alert the author, asking her or him to rewrite or quote exactly and to cite the original source.
2. If the plagiarism is extensive - that is, if at least 25% of the original submission is plagiarized ‐ the article may be rejected and the author's employer notified of the violation.
3. If plagiarism is detected after publication, the editors will notify readers of the infraction through an editor's note in the journal, and the author's employer may be notified of the breach



International Journal of Medical Research and Analysis (IJMRAA)